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Amines identification tests
PH aqueous solution and solubility test

If the combination is water-soluble, dissolving some of it in water, its aqueous solution prepared with pH indicator paper to see it. If you are amine compounds, alkaline and the pH is high. If not dissolve in water, soluble in ethanol - water or dioxane - water and high test done. Aliphatic amines first, second, third and first aromatic amines dissolved in a solution of 5% hydrochloric acid. A compound that is insoluble in water but dissolve in a solution of 5% hydrochloric acid, an amine

(Hynzbrg test (Hinsberg Test



In this test amines can be first, second and third are recognized. This test is based on the principle that the first and second amines with sulfonylureas Arne halides combined, produce sulfone amides N - Substituted that. The reaction products; sulfone hoping for a substitution (the first amine) and two polyamide sulfone substitution (a secondary amine) is. Sulfone substituent in the hope of a solution solubility, but two Substituted sulfone amide in solution can not be resolved, because the acidic hydrogen. So the reaction can not open salt (dissolved) form. The third non-hydrogenated amines and amino acids, so are reactive in these situations. These reactions are shown in the following figureNote: Some of the amines of sulfone amide, sodium salt are dissolved. This may be caused by the use of seiscondary amines instead of the first type is wrong

Hynzbrg Test Methods



 
1.0 ml of liquid amine (approximately 3 drops) or 1.0 g of solid amine and 2.0 ml of benzene sulfonylurea chloride (4 to 5 drops) and 5 ml of 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a small test tube molding, doors closed tube and shake it for 3 to 5 minutes. Then the door and removed the tube while you shake it for a minute by heat the steam bath. After cooling the tube and give it a try with litmus paper. If the environment is alkaline, more NaOH solution and pour, to be played. 1 to 2 ml of distilled water can help dilute it. If there is sediment or oil layer may be formed sulfone substituted polyamide two, and the desired amine is a secondary amine. Oil-bearing deposits with overflow layer or separated and concentrated HCl its solubility in check. (Sulfone amide two substituent in concentrated HCl is not.) If after layer of oily sediment or remain thin, with accuracy to the solution, HCl added concentrated with pH paper to check for acidity. If sediment builds up, because there is a single substituent is sulfone amide. The first type is unknown Amen. If the above is not observed, ie the reaction does not take place, due to the presence of a tertiary amine.

 

 

 

( Test aqueous solution of copper (ll) sulphate (Spot test

 

One of the easiest methods that can be used to identify amines, the use of copper (ll) sulfate is blue. It is adjacent to the amine reactions and often Components of the blue to bluish green

 

Components and thus create color because of the positive test

 

Amines react with copper (ll) sulfate can be written as follows

 

Physical properties: the creation of a blue complex

Chemical properties: the reaction

 

 

 Nitrous acid or nitrous acid test

Nitrous acid test (nitro acid) is used to identify the various amines. This reaction is the breakdown of amines in the form of reactions is shown below.
  Methods nitro acid test:
  About 50 mg of solid amine or 3 drops of liquid amine in 2 ml 3-normal hydrochloric acid (HCl ten percent can be used.) Solution and the solution in an ice bath to 0 ° C to 5 ° C twenty percent NaNO2 get about 5 drops of cold water to add it.

 Notes tests
 
A) the immediate withdrawal of gas is colorless, indicating the existence aliphatic amines first.
 
B) liquid or oil soluble yellow to orange because of an aromatic amine or aliphatic amine II. (Pale yellow or pale orange is due to the presence of secondary amines.)
 
C) If a solution is yellow, it indicates the existence of two substituted aniline which is substituted in the para position. Ten percent of sediment mixed with NaOH to neutralize the green color is obtained.
 
D) If the gas is colorless and yellow oil-soluble or not, there may be an aromatic amine first. In such cases, a few drops of cold reaction to a cold solution of 1.0 g of β - naphthol in 4 ml NaOH add ten percent. The orange to red due to the presence of aromatic amine is first.
 
E) If any of the reactions cited for not, in this case, probably with an aliphatic amine or aromatic amine-substituted in the para position is a third type that we face.
  4) rapid test copper (ll) sulphate:
One of the easiest methods that can be used to identify amines, the use of copper (ll) sulfate is blue. It is adjacent to the amine reactions and often Components of the blue to bluish green. Components and thus create color because of the positive test.
Identify carboxylic acid:

Physical properties

Immediate withdrawal of gas is colorless, indicating the existence aliphatic amines first.Liquid or oil   soluble yellow to orange because of an aromatic amine or secondary aliphatic amine

If the solution is yellow, it indicates the existence of two substituted aniline which is substituted in the para position. Ten percent of sediment mixed with NaOH to neutralize the green color is obtained

If not removed colorless and yellow oil-soluble or not, there may be an aromatic amine first. In such cases, a few drops of cold reaction to a cold solution of 1.0 g of β - naphthol in 4 ml NaOH add ten percent. The orangeto red due to the presence of aromatic amine is first.



CARBOXYLIC ACID TET
Neutralization equivalent (N.E) carboxylic acids because the acidity can be measured with a standard base and neutralize its equivalent calculated. The acid equivalent weight of neutral or acid molecular weight divided by the number of acid in the molecule, n, and on the other hand, if the number of neutralized carboxylic acid groups can be obtained by multiplying the molecular weight acids. 
 
It may be necessary for the complete solution of acid mixture to be heated. Ftalyyn Shnasagrfnvl acid by using sodium hydroxide solution with normality, you turned out to 1/0 the normal headline. Neutralization equivalent obtained from the following equation
 
Neutralization equivalent = 1000 * weight / volume consumer profit * profit normality
If the acid carboxyl group have a molecular weight acid is then neutralized equivalent. If 95% of ethanol as a solvent is used, the indicator does not show exactly phenolphthalein endpoint identifier should be used Bromothymol blue. Also, some acids can be a mixture of two solvents such as ethanol and benzene or toluene, ethanol and measure the volume of Dad.madl neutralized with approximately 1 ±% is calculated for common tasks. But if the sample is carefully purified and dried using the error can be a good way to 3/0 ±% decrease. If the amount of neutral theory does not match with the values ​​obtained, after complete drying volume was measured again.
Substituted aliphatic acids not run for a six-carbon molecule style Dvklaks used to determine fixed. Also for the characterization of esters which are derived from such acids are valuable, you can also obtain this acid hydrolysis of such ester.
 

refference

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